第二节课 连词和状语从句

  英语写作当中经常会用到“……很重要”这一句式,一般考生会用something be important/essential的词汇表达。不过学了比较状语从句以后,大家可以试着用一种更高级的表达方式,一定会让阅卷老师眼前一亮,作文高分就不在话下啦。

复习五种基本结构 -> 如何把简单句搞复杂

主系表

The yard looks fine for a while.

Vitamins are organic compunds.

->

Vitamins are organic compunds necessary for the normal growth of life.

->

Vitamins are organic compunds necessary for the normal growth and maintenance of life of animals, including man.

->

Vitamins are organic compunds necessary in small  amounts in the diet for the normal growth and maintenance of life of animals, including man.

necessary [.....](形容词短语做后置定语修饰compunds)

主谓(不及物动词)[状语修饰]

The egg hatched.

An eagle's egg was placed in the nest of a prairie chicken.

Itscratched in thedirt for seeds.

This trend began during the Second World War.

->

This trend began during the Second World War, when several goverments came to this conclusion.

->

This trend began during the Second World War, when several goverments came to this conclusion that specific demands cannot generally be foreseen in detail.(同位语从句)

->

This trend began during the Second World War, when several goverments came to this conclusion that specific demands that a goverment want to make of its scientific establishment cannot generally be foreseen in detail.

make demands of

主谓(及物动词)宾

There are no quick fixes. This attitude leads to disappointment.

The emphasis given by both scholars and statesmen helped toobscure the great importance.

->

The emphasis given by both scholars and statesmen to the presumed disappearance of the American frontier helped to obscure the great importance.

美洲杯在哪买球,->

The emphasis given by both scholars and statesmen to the presumed disappearance of the American frontier helped to obscure the great importance of changes in the conditionns and consequences of international trade.

->

The emphasis given by both scholars and statesmen to the presumed disappearance of the American frontier helped to obscure the great importance of changes in the conditionns and consequences of international trade that occurred during the second half of the nineteenth century.

主谓 间宾 直宾

He showed the guard his passport = He showed his passport to the guard.

I am going to buy her a gift = I am going to buy a gift for her.

The repairmancharged me ten dollors.

Her work won her the Nobel Prize in 1983.

->

Her work in genetics won United States scientific Barbara McClintock the Nobel Prize in 1983.

主谓 宾 宾补

The chairman declared the  meeting over

You can leave the door open

Willa Cather considered this novel her best work.

->

Willa Cather considered her novel of life in nineteenth-ventury Nebraska, My Antonia her best work.

美洲杯在哪买球 1

美洲杯在哪买球 2

从句

连词和并列句

名词从句 状语从句


-

  箴言仿写:Cultivation is to the mind what food is to the body.

连词总结

1.增补(Addition)

in addition, furthermore, again, also, besides, moreover, what‘s more, similarly, next, finally

2.比较(Comparison)

in the same way, likewise, similarly, equally, in comparison, just as

3.对照(Contrast)

whereas, in contrast, on the other hand, instead, however, nevertheless, unlike, even though, on the contrary, while

4.因果(Cause and effect)

because, because of, for, since, due to, owing to, thanks to, as a result(of), accordingly, hence, so, thus

5.强调(Emphasis)

certainly, above all, indeed, of course, surely, actually, as a matter of fact, chiefly, especially, primarily, in particular, undoubtedly, absolutely, most imprtant

6.让步(Concession)

although, though, after all, in spite of, nevertheless, still, provided, while it is true....

7.例证(Exemplification)

for example, for instance, that is, namely, such as, in other words, in this case, by way of illustration.

8.总结(Conclusion)

to sum up, to conclude, in a word, in short, in brief, all in all, in all, to put it in a nutshell, in summary

9.推断(Inference)

therefore, as a result(of), consequently, accordingly, so, otherwise

10.时间和空间(Time and space)

afterward, after, first, later, then, soon, outside, near, beyound, above, below, on the right(left), in the middle, opposite, in front of

11.启承转合

1)、启

A proverb says...... At present.......

As the proverb says.... Currently.....

Generally speaking, .... Now,....

In general, ..... On the Whole....

It is clear that.... Recently.....

It is often said that.... Without doubt, .......

2)、承

First(of all), ...... Moreover, .........

Firstly, ............ No one can deny that....

In the first place, ......... Obviously.....

To begin with, ......... Of course, .........

Also, ....... Similarly,.........

At the same time...... Therefore, we should realize that.....

Certainly...... There is no doubt that.......

In addition,..... What`s more, ..........

In fact........ It can be easily proved that...

Meanwhile......

3)、转

But... Still, ......

But the problem is not so simple...

There is a certain amount of truth in this, but we still have a problem

with regard to.......

However,

....... To our surprise,..........

Nevertheless, ........ Unfortunately.......

On the other hand, .......

Yet difference will be found and that is why I feel that........

Others may find this to be true, but I do not. I think.....

4)、合

Above all, In brief, ........

Accordingly, ..... In conclusion, ........

All in all, .......

In other words, it is hard to escape the conclusion that........

As a consequence, ......... In short, .........

As I have shown/said/stated/.... In sum, ........

In summary, ....... As has been noted, ....

Obviously, ......... By so doing, .....

On the whole, ..... Consequently, ........

Presumably, ....... Eventually, .........

To conclude, ...... Finally, ........

To sum up, ..... In a word, ......

To summarize, ......

  ——M·T·Cicero

互动 - 判断下列连词并且翻译句子 ->思考如何快速阅读 例如节省一半的句子阅读时间

We thought the figures were correct. However, we have now discovered some errors.

However, he smothered, as best he was able, these feelings.

If, however, you are an extrovert you are quite likely to enjoy it.

It was, however, a little disappointing.

The book is too long but, nonetheless, informative and entertaining.

The problems are not serious. Nonetheless, we shall need to tackle them soon.

Nonetheless, it contains an element of truth.

He was very tired, nevertheless he kept working.

There is little chance that we will succeed in changing the law.

Nevertheless, it is important that we try.

Nevertheless, they deserve notice and respect.

He was mortified by comparisons between his classmates’ good marks and his own.

By comparison, expenditure on education increased last year.

By contrast, she was much more outspoken.

When you look at their new system, ours seems very old-fashioned by contrast.

He is young and therefore easily pervertible.

All sincere opinions should therefore be respected.

He is highly strung, and therefore, subject to heart attacks.

Therefore energy is now not a peripheral but a central issue in the economy.

We have a growing population and therefore we need more and more food.

It’s hand made and hence expensive.

The computer has become smaller and cheaper and hence more available to a greater number of people.

Life was thus made richer.

We have failed. Thus we have to take the consequences.

We hope the new machine will work faster, thus reducing our costs.

We’re able to do in-depth research and thus spot future trends.

Old people often try to economize on heating, thus endangering their health.

The universities have expanded, thus allowing many more people the chance of higher education.

A rise in incomes will create increased purchasing power, thus stimulating demand for goods and services.

We give money to charities, and thus salve our consciences.

In view of the recent developments, we do not think this step advisable.

Voluntary work was particularly important in view of the fact that women were often forced to give up paid work on marriage.

Food is scarce and more often than not they go hungry.

More often than not, his dog will try to bite his guests.

On the one hand they’d love to have kids, but on the other, they don’t want to give up their freedom.

The firm was accommodating its customers on the one hand and making aggressive demands on the other.

What would you do, for instance, if you found a member of staff stealing?

It is a very nice town; it’s got very nice shops for instance.

Taking advertising for instance.

Let’s take Napoleon, for instance.

Murder, petty theft and tax evasion, for instance, all have different motives and consequences.

  上述句子可以概括为A is to B what C is to D.替换ABCD四个名词就可以用来表达“重要性”这一概念。

互动 - 利用以上的连词组成最基本的写作框架(不会的单词用中文标注)。

1 学生是否应该打王者荣耀

2 雾霾是否有利于社会发展

3 中国学生是否应该出国留学

仅从连词角度分析以下文章的结构

美洲杯在哪买球 3

美洲杯在哪买球 4

美洲杯在哪买球 5

美洲杯在哪买球 6

连词结构作文框架

美洲杯在哪买球 7

美洲杯在哪买球 8

  【例句】

托福综合写作

美洲杯在哪买球 9


状语从句

状语从句

状语从句主要用来修饰主句或主句的谓语。一般可分为九大类,分别表示时间、地点、原因、目的、结果、条件、让步、比较和方式。尽管种类较多,但由于状语从句与汉语结构和用法相似,所以理解和掌握它并不难。状语从句的关键是要掌握引导不同状语从句的常用连接词和特殊的连接词即考点。

现分别列举如下:

1、时间状语从句

  常用引导词:when, as, while, as soon as, while, before, after, since , till, until

  特殊引导词:the minute, the moment, the second, every time, the day,the instant, immediately , directly, no sooner … than, hardly …when, scarcely … when

  I didn't realize how special my mother was until I became an adult.

  While John was watching TV, his wife was cooking.

  The children ran away from the orchard(果园) the moment they saw the guard.

  No sooner had I arrived home than it began to rain.

  Every time I listen to your advice, I get into trouble.

2、地点状语从句

  常用引导词:where

  特殊引导词:wherever, anywhere, everywhere

  Generally, air will be heavily polluted where there are factories.

  Wherever you go, you should work hard.

3、原因状语从句

  常用引导词:because, since, as, for

  特殊引导词:seeing that, now that, in that, considering that, given that, considering that, as much as, so much as

  My friends dislike me because I'm handsome and successful.

  Now that everybody has come, let's begin our conference.

  The higher income tax is harmful in that it may discourage people from trying to earn more.

  Considering that he is no more than 12 years old, his height of 1.80 m is quite remarkable.

4、目的状语从句

  常用引导词:so that, in order that

  特殊引导词:lest, in case, for fear that,in the hope that, for the purpose that, to the end that

  The boss asked the secretary to hurry up with the letters so that he could sign them.

  The teacher raised his voice on purpose that the students in the back could hear more clearly.

5、结果状语从句

  常用引导词:so that, so… that, such … that,

  特殊引导词:such that, to the degree that, to the extent that, to such a degree that,

  He got up so early that he caught the first bus.

  It's such a good chance that we must not miss it.

  To such an degree was he excited that he couldn't sleep last night.

6、条件状语从句

  常用引导词:if, unless,

  特殊引导词:as/so long as, only if, providing/provided that, suppose that, in case that, on condition that

  We'll start our project if the president agrees.

  You will certainly succeed so long as you keep on trying.

  Provided that there is no opposition, we shall hold the meeting here.

7、让步状语从句

  常用引导词:though, although, even if, even though

  特殊引导词: as(用在让步状语从句中必须要倒装),while ( 一般用在句首 ),no matter …, in spite of

the fact that, while, whatever, whoever, wherever, whenever, however, whichever

  Much as I respect him, I can't agree to his proposal.

  尽管我很尊敬他, 我却不同意他的建议。

  The old man always enjoys swimming even though the weather is rough.

  No matter how hard he tried, she could not change her mind.

  He won't listen whatever you may say.

8、比较状语从句

  常用引导词:as(同级比较), than(不同程度的比较)

  特殊引导词:the more … the more … ; just as …, so…; A is to B what /as X is to Y; no … more than; not A so much as B

  She is as bad-tempered as her mother.

  The house is three times as big as ours.

  The more you exercise, the healthier you will be.

  Food is to men what oil is to machine. 食物之于人,犹如油之于机器。

9、方式状语从句

  常用引导词:as, as if, how

  特殊引导词:the way

  When in Rome, do as the Roman do.

  She behaved as if she were the boss.

  Sometimes we teach our children the way our parents have taught us.

课堂练习

托福长难句前50题分析连词和状语从句。

作业

用课堂讲授的连词框架完成以下书面作文 (任选一题)

1 学生是否应该打王者荣耀

2 雾霾是否有利于社会发展

3 中国学生是否应该出国留学

托福长难句后50题分析连词和状语从句。


  ★ 人生态度——乐观与悲观

  A positive attitude is to life what the sun is to the earth.积极的态度对于生活,好比太阳对于地球一样。

  ★ 谈读书

  Reading is to the mind what exercise is to the body.阅读对于思想,好比运动对于身体一样。

  ★ 赡养父母——家庭

  Family is to the people what life is to the individual.家庭对于人类,好比生活对于个人一样。

  ★ 投诉信

  Cleanness is to the canteen what reputation is to the people.清洁对于食堂来说,好比名誉对于人一样。

  ★ 谈诚信

  Honesty is to the people what life is to the creature.诚信对于人来说,好比生命对于人一样。

  比较状语(倍数表达法):

  A be 倍数 as many/much as B

  A be 倍数 the amount B

  A be 倍数 what it was B

  【例句】

  ★ 从1999年到2009年,奢侈品的销售增长了3倍。

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